Fuel consumption and safety are improved during airport surface operations thanks to Taxi-out and Taxi-in phases being done through autonomous engine off taxiing used from the gate to the holding point before line up (i.e. for push back and taxi out) and from the runway exit to the gate (i.e. for taxi in to in block). This may be realised thanks to e.g. electric motors added to the main landing gear and drawing power from Auxiliary Power Unit with central control from the cockpit.