Fuel consumption and safety are improved during airport surface operations thanks to Taxi-out and Taxi-in phases being done through non-autonomous engine off taxiing used from the gate to the holding point before line up (i.e. for push back and taxi out) and from the runway exit to the gate (i.e. for taxi in to in block). This may be realised with the aircraft using other external means to taxi (e.g. towing trucks, taxibot).